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Table 7 Sputum biomarkers found to be reliable and predictive of COPD: P values for linear mixed effects models demonstrating associations between sputum biomarker concentrations and lung function and dyspnea.

From: Multi analyte profiling and variability of inflammatory markers in blood and induced sputum in patients with stable COPD

Sputum Biomarker Post-bronchodilator FEV1 Residual Volume (% predicted) Diffusion capacity (% predicted) Baseline dyspnea index score
IL-6 0.0009 0.007 0.01 0.0007
IL-8 0.03 0.24 0.34 0.037
TIMP-1 0.004 0.01 0.07 0.009
VEGF 0.03 0.01 0.15 0.04
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