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Table 3 Characteristics of the Study Population (immunohistochemical study) (n = 85)

From: Selective accumulation of langerhans-type dendritic cells in small airways of patients with COPD

  Never
Smokers
Current
Smokers
without COPD
Ex-Smokers
without
COPD
COPD I-II
Current
Smokers
COPD I-II
Ex-Smokers
COPD III-IV
Ex-Smokers
n 11 14 14 23 13 10
Sex ratio (M/F) 3/8 9/5 12/2 22/1 13/0 4/6
Age (years) 57.6 (11.5) 55.6 (11.0) 63.7 (7.4) 63.0 (9.0) 69.5 (6.9)*†‡Δ 57.3 (5.0)‡Δ∞
Smoking history (packyear) N.A. 31.4 (12.0) 39.1 (35.6) 46.5 (21.1) 42.5 (23.2) 44.5 (41.8)
Years quit smoking N.A. 0.2 (0.2) 18.0 (10.3) 0.1 (0.2)†‡ 9.9 (7.3)†‡Δ 5.1 (2.5)†‡Δ
FEV 1 (%pred) 102.4 (13.0) 102.3 (13.7) 102.6 (19.1) 74.2 (13.2)*†‡ 83.6 (11.0)*†‡ 27.0 (9.9)*†‡Δ∞
FEV 1 (L) 2.8 (0.9) 3.1 (0.4) 3.2 (1.0) 2.4 (0.5)†‡ 2.5 (0.4) 0.7 (0.3)*†‡Δ∞
FEV 1 /FVC (%) 77.0 (7.1) 77.9 (4.7) 76.2 (5.8) 57.3 (8.0)*†‡ 60.3 (5.3)*†‡ 37.7 (10.9)*†‡Δ∞
LABA (Y/N) 0/11 0/14 0/14 6/17 3/10 10/0
Inhaled corticosteroids (Y/N) 0/11 0/14 0/14 5/18 2/11 10/0
Inhaled corticosteroid dose (μg BDP/24 h) 0 0 0 369.6 (771.9) 307.7 (751.1) 1660 (550.2)*†‡Δ∞
Systemic corticosteroids (Y/N) 0/11 0/14 1/13 1/22 0/13 7/3
Systemic corticosteroid dose (mg prednisolon/24 h) 0 0 0.4 (1.6) 0.4 (2.1) 0 5.5 (4.4)*†‡Δ∞
  1. Data are expressed as mean (standard deviation);
  2. * p < 0.05 vs never smoker; † p < 0.05 versus current smoker without COPD; ‡ p < 0.05 versus ex-smoker without COPD; Δ p < 0.05 versus COPDI-II current smoker; ∞ p < 0.05 versus COPD I-II ex-smoker.
  3. FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second;
  4. FVC: forced vital capacity;
  5. LABA : long acting β 2 agonist; BDP: beclomethasone diproprionate.