Quantification of mRNAs encoding type I interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β) and CXC chemokines (CXCL9 and CXCL10). The mRNA levels for each cytokine or chemokine was measured by Taqman quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Comparisons were V2O5 versus Control or V2O5 versus other treatments as indicated. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.