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Table 1 Important M. tuberculosis ligands, main receptors on phagocytic immune cells and immune cell processes affected that promote persistence of the pathogen and establishment of latent tuberculosis infection in humans

From: New approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection

M. tuberculosis liganda Host cell receptorb Immune cell process affected Reference(s)
19 kDa Lipoprotein (LpqH) TLR2 MHC class II expression/antigen presentation 28,30,90
19 kDa Lipoprotein (LpqH) TLR2 Phagosomal processing by MHC class I pathway 89,96
Lipoprotein LprA TLR2 MHC class II expression/antigen presentation 33
Lipoprotein LprG TLR2 MHC class II expression/antigen presentation 32
Phosphatidyinositol mannoside (PIM) TLR2 Modulation of macrophage signaling pathways 26,51
Lipomannan (LM) TLR2, MR Modulation of macrophage signaling pathways 26,51
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) TLR2 Modulation of macrophage signaling pathways 26,51
Mannose-capped LAM MR, DC-SIGN Phagolysosome maturation 91,92
Mannose-capped LAM MR, DC-SIGN MHC class II expression/antigen presentation 51,91.96
Mannose-capped LAM MR, DC-SIGN IL-12 secretion of dentritic cells/macrophages 88
Mannose-capped LAM MR, DC-SIGN Apoptosis of macrophages 91,112
Trehalose dimycolate (cord factor) TLR2, Mincle Phagolysosome biogenesis 27,93,95
Trehalose dimycolate (cord factor) TLR2, Mincle MHC class II expression/antigen presentation 27,94,95
  1. aMannose-capped LAM, Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan
  2. bTLR2, Toll-like receptor 2; MR, mannose receptor; DC-SIGN, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule grabbing nonintegrin; Mincle, macrophage inducible C-type lectin