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Table 1 The characteristics for the study sample, Habitual Snorers vs. Nonhabitual Snorers (n = 20,152)

From: Habitual Snoring in school-aged children: environmental and biological predictors

Characteristics
N (%)
Total
(N = 20152)
Habitual Snorers
(N = 2418)
Nonhabitual Snorers
(N = 17734)
t/χ 2 P value
Sociodemographic characteristics
Age (years, mean ± SD) 9.00 ± 1.60 8.88 ± 1.58 9.02 ± 1.61 4.07a <.001
Gender (%)     121.33b  
Boys 9890 (49.3) 1437 (59.9) 8445 (47.9)   
Girls 10159 (50.7) 963 (40.1) 9188 (52.1)   
BMI (Kg/m2, mean ± SD) 17.33 ± 4.07 17.85 ± 4.40 17.26 ± 4.02 6.18a <.001
Family income (%)     23.99b <.001
< 800 4853 (24.4) 671 (28.2) 4181 (23.9)   
800-2500 11266 (56.6) 1309 (55.0) 9948 (56.8)   
≥ 2500 3793 (19.0) 401 (16.8) 3385 (19.3)   
Mather's education level (%)     1.79b .409
Low 7653 (38.7) 644 (27.4) 4873 (28.0)   
Medium 6616 (33.4) 770 (32.7) 5843 (33.5)   
High 5527 (27.9) 940 (39.9) 6709 (38.5)   
Father's education level (%)     1.20b .548
Low 8433 (42.1) 587 (24.5) 4156 (23.6)   
Medium 6859 (34.2) 802 (33.5) 6050 (34.3)   
High 4750 (23.7) 1008 (42.1) 7422 (42.1)   
Environmental exposures
Delivery     25.24b <.001
Vaginal Birth 13413 (66.8) 1497 (62.3) 11904 (67.4)   
Caesarean section 6658 (33.2) 906 (37.7) 5747 (32.8)   
Feeding patterns during the first four months     11.43 <.001
Breasting feeding 13248 (65.9) 1512 (62.8) 11725 (66.3)   
Mixed/bottle feeding 6869 (34.1) 896 (37.2) 5967 (33.7)   
Breast feeding     13.61b < .001
≥ 6 months 10984 (54.5) 1230 (51.0) 9745 (55.0)   
< 6 months 9168 (45.5) 1182 (49.0) 7978 (45.0)   
Pregnancy maternal smoking 389 (1.9) 76 (3.2) 313 (1.8) 21.42b < .001
Household passive smoking 5000 (24.9) 668 (27.8) 4332 (24.5) 12.43b < .001
Chronic health problems
Obesity 2156 (10.7) 350 (14.6) 1806 (10.2) 37.55b < .001
Overweight 2075 (10.3) 326 (13.5) 1749 (9.8) 24.18b < .001
Chronic or allergic rhinitis 1883 (9.4) 421 (17.5) 1460 (8.2) 212.54b < .001
Asthma 636 (3.2) 138 (5.7) 497 (2.8) 59.08b < .001
Adenotonsillar hypertrophy 2218 (11.0) 498 (20.6) 1716 (9.7) 260.64b < .001
Chronic otitis media 785 (3.9) 141 (5.8) 643 (3.6) 27.93b < .001
Food/drug allergy 1101 (5.5) 174 (7.2) 925 (5.2) 16.35b < .001
Family history of SDB
Habitual snoring 6625 (32.9) 1060 (43.9) 5558 (31.4) 152.43b < .001
OSAS 481 (2.4) 93 (3.9) 388 (2.2) 25.29b < .001
  1. Family income was expressed in RMB(yuan)/person/month
  2. a Independent-samples t test
  3. b Chi-square test