The effect of budesonide, roflumilast and fluvastatin on acute CSE-induced neutrophil infiltrate. (A) Budesonide (i.n., q.d.) had no effect on CSE-induced neutrophil infiltrate in mice after 3 days of exposure. (B) Roflumilast (p.o., q.d.) and (C) Fluvastatin (p.o., b.i.d.) did attenuate neutrophil infiltration. Data from CSE mice are represented by black bars, data from sham controls represented by white bars, data from the CSE with compound treatment in gray, diagonal-striped bars. Data plotted as the mean ± sem with an n = 7-10 for each group. Significance (* = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.01, *** = p < 0.001) was determined versus smoke vehicle control group.