Comparison of inflammatory cell profile after acute versus chronic CSE. Acute (3 days) and chronic (12 weeks) CSE increased BALF neutrophils (A); however, only chronic CSE increased the numbers of BALF macrophages (B), and lymphocytes (C) in C57BL/6 mice. Data is presented as the fold-increase in the numbers of cells recovered in the BALF compared to the average of each respective sham-exposed control group. Data from smoke-exposed mice are represented by black bars and data from sham controls represented by gray bars. Data plotted as the mean ± sem with an n = 8-10 for each group. Significance (* = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.01, *** = p < 0.001) was determined versus sham control group.