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Table 2 Impact of regular inhaled corticosteroid use on T cell subset accumulation.

From: Asthma and gender impact accumulation of T cell subtypes

Culture stimulus T cell subset Asthma group Accumulation, % of day 0 numbers * p-value
   Gender Steroid Geo. Mean Geo. Mean ± S.D. n Gender Steroid Interaction
IL-2 IL-13+ Female No 622 326 - 1184 6 0.0016 0.16 0.22
    Yes 662 342 - 1280 5    
   Male No 116 73 - 184 2    
    Yes 285 155 - 525 5    
  IFN-γ+ Female No 677 229 - 1994 6 0.41 0.28 0.40
    Yes 170 69 - 420 4    
   Male No 206 101 - 423 3    
    Yes 173 21 - 1415 6    
CD3+CD28 IL-13+ Female No 5427 1281-22,996 3 0.0016 0.044 0.33
+ IL-2    Yes 1352 571 - 3,201 6    
   Male No 656 393 - 1,094 3    
    Yes 388 204 - 738 6    
  IFN-γ+ Female No 3730 886 - 15,702 3 0.073 0.023 0.98
    Yes 691 241 - 1,982 6    
   Male No 1035 396 - 2,707 3    
    Yes 186 36 - 962 7    
  1. * Two-way General Linear Model analysis was performed to adjust for the impact of regular steroid use and gender on accumulation of T cell subsets from asthmatic subjects. Geo. Mean = geometric mean for the numbers of IL-13+ or IFN-γ+ T cells relative to the respective day 0 numbers after culture with the indicated culture stimulus. S.D. = standard deviation.
  2. The significance of differences in geometric mean between males and females (gender) and between asthma subjects that use or don't regularly use inhaled steroids (steroid), and the significance of interaction between gender and steroid effects.
  3. Indicates whether asthma subjects regularly use inhaled corticosteroids for asthma control. Note that all asthma subjects refrained from using asthma control medications 12-h before blood draw. No subjects regularly used oral corticosteroids for asthma control.