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Table 1 Potential COPD biomarkers and other diseases in which they have been implicated.

From: Systems biology coupled with label-free high-throughput detection as a novel approach for diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Potential COPD biomarker

Also implicated in

References

Clara cell protein-10/16

Cystic fibrosis, general lung injury, lung cancer

[51, 70, 71]

C-Reactive Protein

Lung cancer, asthma

[50, 72, 73]

Endothelin-1

Asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, heart disease

[53, 74]

IFN-gamma

Pulmonary sarcoidosis, viral infections

[54, 75, 76]

IgG

Asthma, rheumatoid arthritis

[66, 77, 78]

IL-1

Rheumatoid arthritis, leukaemia

[55, 7981]

IL-4

Severe asthma

[56, 82, 83]

IL-6

Sarcoidosis, lung cancer

[57, 84, 85]

IL-8

Asthma, lung cancer, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, sarcoidosis

[48, 8588]

IL-10

Burkitt lymphoma, asthma, sepsis

[58, 8991]

IL-12

Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus

[59, 60, 92, 93]

IL-13

Asthma

[61, 62, 94, 95]

IL-18

Asthma, sarcoidosis

[63, 96, 97]

IP-10

Sarcoidosis, asthma, SARS, tuberculous pleurisy

[64, 98101]

MMP-2

Lung cancer, asthma

[67, 102104]

MMP-12

Lung fibrosis, lung cancer

[68, 105107]

Myeloperoxidase

Lung cancer, cystic fibrosis

[69, 108, 109]

Neutrophil elastase

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, lung cancer, cystic fibrosis

[50, 110112]

TIMP-1

Lung cancer, heart disease, asthma

[48, 102, 113, 114]

TNF-alpha

Virus induced inflammation, HIV, asthma

[50, 65, 76, 115, 116]