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Table 1 Potential COPD biomarkers and other diseases in which they have been implicated.

From: Systems biology coupled with label-free high-throughput detection as a novel approach for diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Potential COPD biomarker Also implicated in References
Clara cell protein-10/16 Cystic fibrosis, general lung injury, lung cancer [51, 70, 71]
C-Reactive Protein Lung cancer, asthma [50, 72, 73]
Endothelin-1 Asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, heart disease [53, 74]
IFN-gamma Pulmonary sarcoidosis, viral infections [54, 75, 76]
IgG Asthma, rheumatoid arthritis [66, 77, 78]
IL-1 Rheumatoid arthritis, leukaemia [55, 7981]
IL-4 Severe asthma [56, 82, 83]
IL-6 Sarcoidosis, lung cancer [57, 84, 85]
IL-8 Asthma, lung cancer, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, sarcoidosis [48, 8588]
IL-10 Burkitt lymphoma, asthma, sepsis [58, 8991]
IL-12 Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus [59, 60, 92, 93]
IL-13 Asthma [61, 62, 94, 95]
IL-18 Asthma, sarcoidosis [63, 96, 97]
IP-10 Sarcoidosis, asthma, SARS, tuberculous pleurisy [64, 98101]
MMP-2 Lung cancer, asthma [67, 102104]
MMP-12 Lung fibrosis, lung cancer [68, 105107]
Myeloperoxidase Lung cancer, cystic fibrosis [69, 108, 109]
Neutrophil elastase Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, lung cancer, cystic fibrosis [50, 110112]
TIMP-1 Lung cancer, heart disease, asthma [48, 102, 113, 114]
TNF-alpha Virus induced inflammation, HIV, asthma [50, 65, 76, 115, 116]