mRNA levels following injurious ventilation. (A) CTGF, CYR61 and EGR1 lung mRNA levels and (B) the percentage of tissue staining positive for CYR61 and EGR1 protein in preterm lambs at 132 days of gestation resuscitated at birth using an injurious ventilation (IV) strategy for 15 minutes, then ventilated gently for 15–120 minutes. All values are mean ± SEM and expressed as a fold change relative to values in unventilated age-matched control fetuses (T = 0 values). The mRNA levels of CTGF, CYR61 and EGR1 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the levels prior to ventilation (T = 0), at all time points after IV. The asterisks (*) indicate protein levels of CYR61 and EGR1 that were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the levels before ventilation measured in age-matched control fetuses.