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  1. Research

    Dual polarization of human alveolar macrophages progressively increases with smoking and COPD severity

    It is known that tissue macrophages derive not only from blood monocytes but also from yolk sac or fetal liver, and the tissue of residence guides their function. When isolated, they lose tissue specific signa...

    Erica Bazzan, Graziella Turato, Mariaenrica Tinè, Claudia M. Radu, Elisabetta Balestro, Chiara Rigobello, Davide Biondini, Marco Schiavon, Francesca Lunardi, Simonetta Baraldo, Federico Rea, Paolo Simioni, Fiorella Calabrese, Marina Saetta and Manuel G. Cosio

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:40

    Published on: 23 February 2017

  2. Research

    Cluster analysis of sputum cytokine-high profiles reveals diversity in T(h)2-high asthma patients

    Asthma is characterized by a heterogeneous inflammatory profile and can be subdivided into T(h)2-high and T(h)2-low airway inflammation. Profiling of a broader panel of airway cytokines in large unselected pat...

    Sven F. Seys, Hans Scheers, Paul Van den Brande, Gudrun Marijsse, Ellen Dilissen, Annelies Van Den Bergh, Pieter C. Goeminne, Peter W Hellings, Jan L. Ceuppens, Lieven J Dupont and Dominique M. A. Bullens

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:39

    Published on: 23 February 2017

  3. Research

    Dibutyryl-cAMP attenuates pulmonary fibrosis by blocking myofibroblast differentiation via PKA/CREB/CBP signaling in rats with silicosis

    Myofibroblasts play a major role in the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) and the stimulation of these cells is thought to play an important role in the development of silicosis. The present study was un...

    Yan Liu, Hong Xu, Yucong Geng, Dingjie Xu, Lijuan Zhang, Yi Yang, Zhongqiu Wei, Bonan Zhang, Shifeng Li, Xuemin Gao, Ruimin Wang, Xianghong Zhang, Darrell Brann and Fang Yang

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:38

    Published on: 21 February 2017

  4. Research

    Clarithromycin attenuates IL-13–induced periostin production in human lung fibroblasts

    Periostin is a biomarker indicating the presence of type 2 inflammation and submucosal fibrosis; serum periostin levels have been associated with asthma severity. Macrolides have immunomodulatory effects and a...

    Kosaku Komiya, Shoichiro Ohta, Kazuhiko Arima, Masahiro Ogawa, Shoichi Suzuki, Yasutaka Mitamura, Satoshi Nunomura, Yasuhiro Nanri, Tomohito Yoshihara, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Jun-ichi Kadota, Bruce K. Rubin and Kenji Izuhara

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:37

    Published on: 20 February 2017

  5. Research

    Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducted surfactant protein induced lung inflammation is mediated through scavenger receptor a (SR-A1)

    Co-exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol leads to the generation of high concentrations of acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde in the lung. These aldehydes being highly electrophilic in nature react with biolog...

    Muna Sapkota, Jane M. DeVasure, Kusum K. Kharbanda and Todd A. Wyatt

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:36

    Published on: 13 February 2017

  6. Letter to the Editor

    Acute effects of nicotine-free and flavour-free electronic cigarette use on lung functions in healthy and asthmatic individuals

    We designed a crossover and placebo-controlled trial to investigate the impact of a 1-h acute vaping session of nicotine-free and flavour-free e-liquid on the pulmonary functions and respiratory mechanics of h...

    Marie-Ève Boulay, Cyndi Henry, Ynuk Bossé, Louis-Philippe Boulet and Mathieu C. Morissette

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:33

    Published on: 10 February 2017

  7. Research

    Collaboration between specialties for respiratory allergies in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) has been grouping the allergic and hypersensitivity disorders involving the respiratory tract under topographic distribution, regardless of the underlying mec...

    Luciana Kase Tanno, Moises Calderon, Jeffrey F. Linzer, Robert J.G. Chalmers and Pascal Demoly

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:34

    Published on: 10 February 2017

  8. Research

    Imatinib relaxes the pulmonary venous bed of guinea pigs

    Recently, the IMPRES study revealed that systemic imatinib improves exercise capacity in patients with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Imatinib blocks the tyrosine kinase activity of the platelet-der...

    Nina A. Maihöfer, Said Suleiman, Daniela Dreymüller, Paul W. Manley, Rolf Rossaint, Stefan Uhlig, Christian Martin and Annette D. Rieg

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:32

    Published on: 8 February 2017

  9. Research

    The role of serum procalcitonin in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of pleural infection

    Bacterial pleural infection requires prompt identification to enable appropriate investigation and treatment. In contrast to commonly used biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and white cell count (WCC)...

    Giles Dixon, Adriana Lama-Lopez, Oliver J. Bintcliffe, Anna J. Morley, Clare E. Hooper and Nick A. Maskell

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:30

    Published on: 3 February 2017

  10. Letter to the Editor

    Changes in the respiratory microbiome during acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) have been defined as events of clinically significant respiratory deterioration with an unidentifiable cause. They carry a significant mortality an...

    Philip L. Molyneaux, Michael J Cox, Athol U. Wells, Ho Cheol Kim, Wonjun Ji, William O. C. Cookson, Miriam F. Moffatt, Dong Soon Kim and Toby M. Maher

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:29

    Published on: 1 February 2017

  11. Research

    High throughput 16SrRNA gene sequencing reveals the correlation between Propionibacterium acnes and sarcoidosis

    This study aims to use high throughput 16SrRNA gene sequencing to examine the bacterial profile of lymph node biopsy samples of patients with sarcoidosis and to further verify the association between Propionib...

    Meng-Meng Zhao, Shan-Shan Du, Qiu-Hong Li, Tao Chen, Hui Qiu, Qin Wu, Shan-Shan Chen, Ying Zhou, Yuan Zhang, Yang Hu, Yi-Liang Su, Li Shen, Fen Zhang, Dong Weng and Hui-Ping Li

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:28

    Published on: 1 February 2017

  12. Research

    Diesel exhaust alters the response of cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Exacerbations constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both bacterial infections, such as those with non-typeable Haemophilus in...

    Maria C. Zarcone, Annemarie van Schadewijk, Evert Duistermaat, Pieter S. Hiemstra and Ingeborg M. Kooter

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:27

    Published on: 28 January 2017

  13. Research

    Pharmacological investigation on the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of N-acetylcysteine in an ex vivo model of COPD exacerbation

    Oxidative stress is recognized to be one of predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of COPD. The oxidant/antioxidant imbalance is significantly pronounced in patients with COPD exacerbation. N-acetylcysteine (...

    Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Francesco Facciolo, Paola Rogliani and Maria Gabriella Matera

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:26

    Published on: 24 January 2017

  14. Research

    Admission levels of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine predict long-term outcome in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    During infection, there is an activation of the L-arginine-nitric-oxide pathway, with a shift from nitric oxide synthesis to a degradation of L-arginine to its metabolites, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarg...

    Alaadin Vögeli, Manuel Ottiger, Marc A. Meier, Christian Steuer, Luca Bernasconi, Prasad Kulkarni, Andreas Huber, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Christoph Henzen, Claus Hoess, Robert Thomann, Werner Zimmerli, Beat Mueller and Philipp Schuetz

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:25

    Published on: 23 January 2017

  15. Research

    Effect of a retinoid X receptor partial agonist on airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily that mediate signaling by 9-cis retinoic acid, a vitamin A (retinol) derivative. RXRs play key roles not only as homodimers but ...

    Utako Fujii, Nobuaki Miyahara, Akihiko Taniguchi, Naohiro Oda, Daisuke Morichika, Etsuko Murakami, Hikari Nakayama, Koichi Waseda, Mikio Kataoka, Hiroki Kakuta, Mitsune Tanimoto and Arihiko Kanehiro

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:23

    Published on: 23 January 2017

  16. Research

    Biomarkers of extracellular matrix turnover are associated with emphysema and eosinophilic-bronchitis in COPD

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow obstruction and loss of lung tissue mainly consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM). Three of the main ECM components are type I collage...

    Asger Reinstrup Bihlet, Morten Asser Karsdal, Jannie Marie Bülow Sand, Diana Julie Leeming, Mustimbo Roberts, Wendy White and Russell Bowler

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:22

    Published on: 19 January 2017

  17. Review

    Is aclidinium alone or combined with a LABA a rational choice for symptomatic COPD patients?

    As emphasized by international recommendations and largely confirmed by clinical experience, long-acting bronchodilators play a central role in the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseas...

    F. Blasi, G. W. Canonica and M. Miravitlles

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:19

    Published on: 18 January 2017

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Respiratory Research 2017 18:35

  18. Research

    The St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire as a prognostic factor in IPF

    It is unclear whether health related quality of life (HRQL) may have a predictive value for mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

    Taiki Furukawa, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Masahiko Ando, Yasuhiro Kondoh, Kensuke Kataoka, Osamu Nishiyama, Takeshi Johkoh, Junya Fukuoka, Koji Sakamoto and Yoshinori Hasegawa

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:18

    Published on: 17 January 2017

  19. Letter to the Editor

    Vascular function in asthmatic children and adolescents

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with bronchial asthma, but little is known about the relationship between asthma and vascular function. The...

    Leonardo Silva Augusto, Grazielle Caroline Silva, José Felippe Pinho, Rosária Dias Aires, Virgínia Soares Lemos, Lidiana Fátima Correa Ramalho, Nulma Souto Jentzsch and Maria Glória Rodrigues-Machado

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:17

    Published on: 17 January 2017

  20. Research

    Comparing accelerometer, pedometer and a questionnaire for measuring physical activity in bronchiectasis: a validity and feasibility study

    There are challenges for researchers and clinicians to select the most appropriate physical activity tool, and a balance between precision and feasibility is needed. Currently it is unclear which physical acti...

    B. O’Neill, S. M. McDonough, J. J. Wilson, I. Bradbury, K. Hayes, A. Kirk, L. Kent, D. Cosgrove, J. M. Bradley and M. A. Tully

    Respiratory Research 2017 18:16

    Published on: 14 January 2017

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